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AIRAYA Knowledgebase Path Related RF Issues

Dealing with Path Reflections
Article # 331
Title Dealing with Path Reflections
Abstract Reflections may reduce throughput on the AI108 when two signals are received at an end-point at the same time but out of phase.
Reflections occur when radio waves bounce off of smooth surfaces. Flat rooftops, flat sections of earth, water, and other smooth surfaces reflect radio waves.

If two signals are received by an AI108 end-point at the same time but out of phase, they will cancel each other out. To reduce the effect of reflections, you should design the path so that minimal reflections occur.

If you have run the RSSI tool and confirmed that the Signal/Noise (RSSI) is strong, but encounter performance issues on your AI108 link, you may have a reflection along the path between end points.

The following tips will help to reduce issues related to reflections along a path.

Reflections can be reduced by moving antennas/outdoor units farther away or closer to the edge of a roof and/or adjusting the antenna height at either end point of the link.

Moving either one or both antennas/outdoor units away from the edge of a rooftop may shield the antenna from a reflected signal.

Adjusting the height of one antenna by approximately one (1) inch up or down will shift the phase of the antenna 180 degrees. A radio wave operating in 5 GHz is approximately 2.2 inches high, so moving the antenna up or down by one inch should adjust the phase of one signal path by 180 degrees. In addition, adjusting the height of the antenna/outdoor units also alters the path of the reflection and may reduce the effect seen before the adjustment was made.

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