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AIRAYA Knowledgebase Path Related RF Issues

Refraction and wireless bridges
Article # 329
Title Refraction and wireless bridges
Abstract Refraction (the bending of radio wave through substances of different density) can affect the performance of your AI108 link. Care should be taken to provide adequate fresnel (radio line of sight) clearance in order to reduce issues relating to refraction along the radio path.
Understanding refraction

When radio waves travel through substances of different densities, the wave will bend (refract). This is due to the fact that radio signals move slower through substances of greater density.

The density of the atmosphere increases as you get closer to the earths surface. As the radio wave moves along the path between two end-points, the difference in atmospheric density between the top and bottom of the radio wave will tend to bend the wave toward the earths surface.

Typically, refraction will be most noticeable at night and in the early morning hours, when moisture in the air is highest. This is due to condensation that occurs at night. Condensation further increases the density of air closer to the earths surface, increasing the chance for refraction to distort the signal path and affect the performance of your AI108 link.

To reduce the affect of refraction, care should be taken to provide adequate fresnel (radio line of sight) clearance along the AI108 radio path.
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